NBER Help: Working Papers

General Information

NBER Working Papers have not undergone the review accorded official NBER publications; in particular, they have not been submitted for approval by the Board of directors. They are intended to make results of NBER research available to other economists in preliminary form to encourage discussion and suggestions for revision before publication.

Online Access

The NBER Web site offers full-text downloads of all NBER Working papers in full text format. Most papers are free to most users, but subscriptions are required for most papers issued in the last 18 months to website visitors in high income counties.


Authorization problems should be presented to Tim Page. More information about

is available on this website. If authorization is incorrectly denied, please visit the test document and send Daniel Feenberg a note including the time (in New York) and date when that was done, in addition to the number of the paper actually sought.

Production problems

Production problems including unreadable text or equations, missing pages, missing characters, or missing figures should be reported to Laura Bethard. Papers should be viewable in any PDF reader supporting Adobe version 5+ or PDF/A.


Working Papers

The NBER does not hold the copyright for our Working Paper series. The copyright remains with the author(s) of the paper. Contact information for authors may be obtained from the paper's abstract page. Additional information is here

Information for Libraries and Robots

Details of our support for mechanized bibliographic sysetems, and other information of interest to library subscribers is here